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Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity associated with endemic Tristaniopsis spp. (Myrtaceae) in ultramafic and volcano-sedimentary soils in New Caledonia

Waseem M., Ducousso M., Prin Y., Domergue O., Hannibal L., Majorel C., Jourand P., Galiana A.. 2017. Mycorrhiza, 27 (4) : p. 407-413.

New Caledonian serpentine (ultramafic) soils contain high levels of toxic heavy metals, in particular nickel, (up to 20 g kg?1) and are deficient in essential elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus while having a high magnesium/calcium ratio. Although previous studies showed that ectomycorrhizal symbioses could play an important role in the adaptation of the endemic plants to ultramafic soils (FEMS Microbiol Ecol 72:238¿49, 2010), none of them have compared the diversity of microbial communities from ultramafic vs non-ultramafic soils in New Caledonia. We explored the impact of edaphic characteristics on the diversity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi associated with different endemic species of Tristaniopsis (Myrtaceae) growing under contrasting soil conditions in the natural ecosystems of New Caledonia. ECM root tips were thus sampled from two different ultramafic sites (Koniambo massif and Desmazures forest) vs two volcano-sedimentary ones (Arama and Mont Ninndo). The molecular characterization of the ECM fungi through partial sequencing of the ITS rRNA gene revealed the presence of different dominant fungal genera including, both soil types combined, Cortinarius (36.1%), Pisolithus (18.5%), Russula (13.4%), Heliotales (8.2%) and Boletellus (7.2%). A high diversity of ECM taxa associated with Tristaniopsis species was found in both ultramafic and volcano-sedimentary soils but no significant differences in ECM genera distribution were observed between both soil types. No link could be established between the phylogenetic clustering of ECM taxa and their soil type origin, thus suggesting a possible functional¿rather than taxonomical¿adaptation of ECM fungal communities to ultramafic soils. (Résumé d'auteur)

Mots-clés : Écosystème; écosystème forestier; myrtaceae; russula; pisolithus; cortinarius; organisme indigène; adaptation physiologique; variation génétique; nickel; métal lourd; symbiose; ectomycorhize; nouvelle-calédonie; boletellus; heliotales; tristaniopsis

Thématique : Biologie du sol; Foresterie - Considérations générales; Ecologie végétale

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