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Occurrence of mycotoxins in commercial infant formulas locally produced in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

Ware L.Y., Durand N., Nikiema P.A., Alter P., Fontana A., Montet D., Barro N.. 2017. Food Control, 73 (B) : p. 518-523.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.08.047

Cereals products enriched with leguminous or oleaginous are used in Burkina Faso as food complement or to avoid infant malnutrition. Infant formulas from cereals are consumed as food supplements after the weaning age. They are produced in Burkina Faso with a mixture of several cereals (maize, millet, rice, or sorghum), leguminous (bean), oleaginous (peanut, soya or sesame), sugar or salt and sometimes milk powder. The production is artisanal or semi-industrial. These infant foods from cereals should be free from mycotoxins and pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this work was to determine the occurrence of mycotoxins like aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins in infant formulas and grains in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). The mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins) were determined by HPLC-FLD in 248 samples of infant formulas produced by the Recovery and Nutrition Education Centers (CRENs) and sold on the market places in Burkina Faso. Results showed that the majority of samples of infant formulas presented high levels of mycotoxins. The frequency of contaminated samples by aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and fumonisins in analyzed samples were 83.9% (167/199), 7.5% (15/199) and 1.5% (3/199), respectively. The highest values registered in infant formulas were 900, 6 and 3 times higher for aflatoxin B1 (EU limit: 0.1 µg/kg), ochratoxin A (EU limit: 0.5 µg/kg) and fumonisins (EU limit: 200 µg/kg), respectively, than the EU regulation limits (1881/2006). This study presents the first results concerning the safety assessment of infant formulas regarding mycotoxins in Burkina Faso.

Mots-clés : mycotoxine; produit céréalier; aliment pour nourrisson; produit alimentaire; enfant; produit oléagineux; plante oléagineuse; ochratoxine; fumonisine; aflatoxine; farine; toxicité; légumineuse; céréale; arachide; riz; maïs; burkina faso; sécurité des aliments

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