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Dynamics of bacterial community composition in the malaria mosquito's epithelia

Tchioffo M.T., Boissiere A., Abate L., Nsango S.E., Bayibéki A.N., Awono-Ambéné P., Christen R., Gimonneau G., Morlais I.. 2016. Frontiers in Microbiology, 6 (1500) : 9 p..

DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01500

The Anopheles midgut hosts diverse bacterial communities and represents a complex ecosystem. Several evidences indicate that mosquito midgut microbiota interferes with malaria parasite transmission. However, the bacterial composition of salivary glands and ovaries, two other biologically important tissues, has not been described so far. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the bacterial communities in the mosquito tissues from emerging mosquitoes until 8 days after a blood meal containing Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes and described the temporal colonization of the mosquito epithelia. Bacterial communities were identified in the midgut, ovaries, and salivary glands of individual mosquitoes using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that the mosquito epithelia share a core microbiota, but some bacteria taxa were more associated with one or another tissue at a particular time point. The bacterial composition in the tissues of emerging mosquitoes varied according to the breeding site, indicating that some bacteria are acquired from the environment. Our results revealed temporal variations in the bacterial community structure, possibly as a result of the mosquito physiological changes. The abundance of Serratia significantly correlated with P. falciparum infection both in the midgut and salivary glands of malaria challenged mosquitoes, which suggests that interactions occur between microbes and parasites. These bacteria may represent promising targets for vector control strategies. Overall, this study points out the importance of characterizing bacterial communities in malaria mosquito vectors.

Mots-clés : anopheles; anopheles gambiae; vecteur de maladie; Écologie microbienne; malaria; epithelium; culicidae; tissu animal; flore bactérienne; séquence nucléotidique; dynamique des populations; méthode statistique; serratia; plasmodium falciparum; cameroun; séquencage

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