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Can urbanization, social and spatial disparities help to understand the rise of cardiometabolic risk factors in Bobo-Dioulasso? A study in a secondary city of Burkina Faso, West Africa

Zeba A.N., Tené Yaméogo M., Tougouma S.J.B., Kassie D., Fournet F.. 2017. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14 (4) : 13 p..

DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14040378

Background: Unplanned urbanization plays a key role in chronic disease growth. This population-based cross-sectional study assessed the occurrence of cardiometabolic risk factors in Bobo-Dioulasso and their association with urbanization conditions. Methods: Through spatial sampling, four Bobo-Dioulasso sub-spaces were selected for a population survey to measure the adult health status. Yéguéré, Dogona, Tounouma and Secteur 25 had very different urbanization conditions (position within the city; time of creation and healthcare structure access). The sample size was estimated at 1000 households (250 for each sub-space) in which one adult (35 to 59-year-old) was randomly selected. Finally, 860 adults were surveyed. Anthropometric, socioeconomic and clinical data were collected. Arterial blood pressure was measured and blood samples were collected to assess glycemia. Results: Weight, body mass index and waist circumference (mean values) and serum glycemia (83.4 mg/dL ± 4.62 mmol/L) were significantly higher in Tounouma, Dogona, and Secteur 25 than in Yéguéré; the poorest and most rural-like sub-space (p = 0.001). Overall, 43.2%, 40.5%, 5.3% and 60.9% of participants had overweight, hypertension, hyperglycemia and one or more cardiometabolic risk markers, respectively. Conclusions: Bobo-Dioulasso is unprepared to face this public health issue and urgent responses are needed to reduce the health risks associated with unplanned urbanization.

Mots-clés : santé publique; urbanisation; maladie de l'homme; maladie cardiovasculaire; processus chronique; trouble du métabolisme; facteur de risque; gestion du risque; distribution spatiale; population urbaine; ville; zone urbaine; enquête; Échantillonnage; burkina faso; inégalité

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