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Thermal landscapes and pest dynamic in Andean tropical agrosystems

Faye E.. 2015. Paris : Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 280 p.. Thèse de doctorat -- Sciences de la nature et de l'homme.

In the context of global warming and increasing climatic variability, a major uncertainty that hampers effective pest management is related to the thermal characteristics of agricultural landscapes, which are known to have profound effects on insect pest dynamics. Moreover the spatial mismatch between the size of organisms and the scale at which climate data are collected and modelled is also a major barrier to better understand and predict pest distribution and dynamics. In this thesis, we addressed the issue of considering microclimates experienced by crop pests in their environments with the main objective to infer their spatiotemporal distribution. Therefore, we focused on the following questions: 1) How to bridge the gap between the predictions of coarse-scale climatic models and the fine-scale climatic reality experienced by organisms (i.e. microclimates), 2) How to develop innovative technological approaches such as thermal infrared cameras and unmanned aerial vehicle as a tool for the study of crop pest thermal ecology, 3) to what extent the fine spatiotemporal variability in thermal heterogeneity of natural and agricultural landscapes is useful to understand pest dynamics , and 4) how to integrate microclimatic data in models predicting the interrelation between pest organisms and the microclimate of their environments. This work revealed that microclimate substantially affects pest dynamics in agrosystems and may offer them opportunities to enhance their performances, as well as to buffer global warming effects within only few centimetres. Consequently, this thesis stresses the need of a better incorporation of microclimatic data into models of species distribution (and vulnerability to climate change) and evidences that microclimates might provide new insights towards agro-ecological pest management.

Mots-clés : ravageur des plantes; changement climatique; réchauffement global; microclimat; température du sol; paysage agricole; terre agricole; agroécologie; lutte intégrée; agroécosystème; dynamique des populations; distribution géographique; lutte anti-insecte; photo-interprétation; région andine; Équateur; bolivie (État plurinational de); pérou

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