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The typical RB76 recombination breakpoint of the invasive recombinant tomato yellow leaf curl virus of Morocco can be generated experimentally but is not positively selected in tomato

Belabess Z., Urbino C., Granier M., Tahiri A., Blenzar A., Peterschmitt M.. 2018. Virus Research, 243 : p. 44-51.

DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2017.10.002

TYLCV-IS76 is an unusual recombinant between the highly recombinogenic tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), two Mediterranean begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). In contrast with the previously reported TYLCV/TYLCSV recombinants, it has a TYLCSV derived fragment of only 76 nucleotides, and has replaced its parental viruses in natural conditions (Morocco, Souss region). The viral population shift coincided with the deployment of the popular Ty-1 resistant tomato cultivars, and according to experimental studies, has been driven by a strong positive selection in such resistant plants. However, although Ty-1 cultivars were extensively used in Mediterranean countries, TYLCV-IS76 was not reported outside Morocco. This, in combination with its unusual recombination pattern suggests that it was generated through a rare and possibly multistep process. The potential generation of a recombination breakpoint (RB) at locus 76 (RB76) was investigated over time in 10 Ty-1 resistant and 10 nearly isogenic susceptible tomato plants co-inoculated with TYLCV and TYLCSV clones. RB76 could not be detected in the recombinant progeny using the standard PCR/sequencing approach that was previously designed to monitor the emergence of TYLCV-IS76 in Morocco. Using a more sensitive PCR test, RB76 was detected in one resistant and five susceptible plants. The results are consistent with a very low intra-plant frequency of RB76 bearing recombinants throughout the test and support the hypothesis of a rare emergence of TYLCV-IS76. More generally, RBs were more scattered in resistant than in susceptible plants and an unusual RB at position 141 (RB141) was positively selected in the resistant cultivar; interestingly, RB141 bearing recombinants were detected in resistant tomato plants from the field. Scenarios of TYLCV-IS76 pre-emergence are proposed.

Mots-clés : géminivirus enroulement jaune tomat; virus des végétaux; virologie; solanum lycopersicum; recombinaison; variété; résistance aux maladies; Épidémiologie; pcr; Évolution; maroc; tomato yellow leaf curl virus; Émergence

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