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D 5.4.1.3. Final Report on sensory testing in Europe for Group 3. Project AFTER ¿African Food Tradition rEvisited by Research¿

Monteiro M.J., Pintado M.M.E., Cissé M., Costa A.I.A., Fliedel G., Bechoff A., Maraval I., Boucher M., Pallet D., Tomlins K.I., Pintado M.M.E.. 2015. s.l. : Projet AFTER; Union Européenne, 27 p..

The work presented in this deliverable had as main objective the sensory profiling of products resulting from process reengineering of traditional products from group 3 - plant based extracts. The new processing expected to improve food safety and product quality to facilitate their promotion and introduction to EU markets. The products belonging to this group were Bissap - Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Baobab - Adansonia digitata L. and Jaabi - Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. However, due to restrictions of Jabbi product only Bissap and Babobab was studied in Europe. In previous study in Europe sensory evaluation of the cake samples was carried out by 5 semi-trained panellists from CIRAD Montpellier (paper under submission), and sensory aspect of jaabi was not well accepted by the European consumer. For that reason, and because the reengineered product was only improved in terms of nutritional value ith no sensory improvement, we did not reached conditions to test this product in Europe. In the case Baobab samples, four different samples were included: two syrups obtained from Baobab powder by two different processes: hot dissolution and cold dissolution; two syrups one produced from Baobab fruit and one from Baobab fruit pulp and control: a commercial pear nectar selected for comparison as standard sample recognised by Portuguese consumers and resembling similar sensory attributes. The samples were assessed by a Portuguese trained panel (n=18). The results of sensory profiling showed similar results between the four samples, however samples produced from similar raw material, Baobab powder or fruit showed to be closer in particular concerning color hue and turbidity. The attribute that was highlighted in all samples was sweetness and all samples were considered very swee. The Baobab fruit pulp syrup was the most appreciated sample in consumer testing (see Deliverable 5.4.2.3), possibly by its sensory profile, since higher values in the attributes, namely fruit odor intensity and color hue were obtained. Concerning Bissap descriptive analysis was performed on three hibiscus drinks, an hibiscus infusion prepared freshly from dried calyces according to Senegalese recipe for baseline comparison and two new hibiscus drinks developed under as reengineered products ¿ an ultra-vacuum concentrate and improved syrup. The samples were assessed by a Portuguese trained panel (n=16). Results showed a greater proximity between UVc and FTi, than with REs. REs was characterized for its strong sweetness, low acidity and weak colour intensity, while FTi showed the stronger hibiscus character. FTi and UVc had similar colour intensity, acidity and bitterness. These results are in line with the ones obtained using the consumer profiling technique, Check-all-that-apply, according to which REs was perceived to have a highly distinct sensory profile when compared with FTi and UVc, being attributed with mild descriptors (sweet, watery, syrupy and light red), and UVc and FTi were related to more aggressive ones (strong taste, acidic, bitter, astringent, dark red). So these studies make evidence that reengineered products presented similar profiles, in particular for baobab drinks, while for baobab a very clear difference in some drinks were observed mainly in terms of Intensity. These results of Groups 3 will support the introduction of the new products in Europe and will allow selecting the best strategy to do it....

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