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D Final report on sensory testing in Africa for Group 1. Project AFTER ¿African Food Tradition rEvisited by Research¿

Fliedel G., Maraval I., Lahon M.C., Forestier N., Grabulos J., Mestres C., Sacca C., Akissoé N.H., Monteiro M.J., Pintado M.M.E., Amoa-Awua W., Oduro-Yeboah C., Ahmed Z.S., Awad S., Fathi M., Abozed S., Bechoff A., Tomlins K.I.. 2015. s.l. : Projet AFTER; Union Européenne, 26 p..

This deliverable concerns the sensory evaluation of the reengineered group 1 African products in the AFTER project. Specifically, it related to reengineered akpan and gowe from Benin, kenkey from Ghana and Kishk Sa'eedi in Egypt. Concerning reengineered akpan from Benin, the sensory evaluation was undertaken in Montpellier, France. Re-engineering of akpan has focused primarily on improvement of sanitary properties of the product, which was a great achievement and will allow producing Akpan on a larger scale in SMEs in Africa. Sensory evaluation of the Akpan products was carried out using CATA and JAR techniques that have been developed for use with consumers instead of a trained panel. Three Akpan products were tested by 102 consumers: Akpan added with 10% sugar (AS10), Akpan added with 3% spray-dried milk and 8.7% sugar (AMS8.7) and Akpan added with 3% spray-dried milk and 15% sugar (AMS15). Independently of the Akpan tasted, Acidity or Sweetness attributes were scored ¿Just About Right, as I like¿ by 56 to 77% of consumers. Odour perception was perceived differently, depending on consumers. However, Texture was found ¿Too weak¿, too liquid by the majority of consumers (49 to 55%) and Taste ¿too strong¿ (46 to 54%). The most frequently CATA descriptors checked by consumers which better described Akpan products were: ¿Artificial¿, ¿Floral¿, ¿New/Different¿, ¿Strong in Taste¿, ¿Mealy¿, followed by ¿Liquid¿, ¿Drinking yoghurt¿, ¿Sweet¿, ¿Acidic¿, and ¿Rough¿. At the opposite, an ideal-yoghurt was described as Creamy, Natural, Good for health, Refreshing, Homogeneous, with a texture of a Bulgarian yoghurt-type, Thick, Sweet, Attractive, Nutritious and Milk taste. In terms of sensory evaluation, the three Akpan products did not significantly. If we remove the terms such as ¿artificial¿, ¿strong in taste¿, ¿floral¿ due to a manufacturing error (use of a few drops of citronella essential oil instead of citronella infusion as a traditional flavouring of Akpan in Benin), it remains the terms ¿mealy¿, ¿liquid¿ ¿drinking yoghurt¿ that better describe the product and were previously used for describing traditional Akpan product. This suggests that sensory properties of the reengineered Akpan may not be acceptable to French consumers who prefer a product with a creamy, homogeneous, Bulgarian yoghurt-type taste. Gowe in Benin was not tested using sensory evaluation. Sensory testing of Gowe in Benin was not undertaken because this was planned to be undertaken in Europe. The reason is because the methodology used in sensory evaluation is independent of the location provided the samples are the same. However, the particular samples provided for French sensory testing contained a concentration of aflatoxin that was higher than the minimum EU allowable limit. It was not possible to repeat the sensory test in France because it would have taken too long to obtain a replacement supply from Benin and to repeat the processing (takes one week). In which case the samples would have been took different to enable a comparison. The sensory evaluation of kenkey was carried at the Food Research Institute, Ghana. Current trends in urbanization, and the increasing popularity of kenkey among consumers, require larger scale production with consistent quality. Testing was conducted to determine the sensory profile of white reengineered kenkey made using the optimum pre-process conditions of steeping time (30 and 45h), steeping temperature (30¿C and 35¿C) and dough fermentation time of 12 hours. The qualitative descriptive analysis showed that the sensory profile of white kenkey was dependent on preprocessing variables. Thus merely optimizing the pre-processing variables with regards to acid production and other readily measurable constituents though could shorten the production process could not guarantee the best product sensory quality. The results show that all the descriptors generated were appropriate for differentiating sensory qualities among samples ...

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