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D 5.5.2. Report on near-market consumer testing of new improved products and substitutes in Africa. Project AFTER ¿African Food Tradition rEvisited by Research¿

Akissoé N.H., Sacca C., Dadole G., Anihouvi V., Kindossi J., Hounhouigan J.D., Amoa-Awua W., Oduro-Yeboah C., Ratsimba A.I., Andrianarison I.M., Ramaroson V., Andriantahiana Z.M., Rakoto D., Ayessou N.C., Cisse M., Boucher M., Devilliers J., Monteiro M.J., Pintado M., Ndjouenkeu R., Ahmed Z.S., Awad S., Fathi M., Abozed S., Mestres C., Fliedel G., Pallet D., Bechoff A., Tomlins K.I.. 2015. s.l. : Projet AFTER; Union Européenne, 78 p..

In this deliverable, the reengineered products relating to groups 1 to 3 are tested by consumers in Africa in order to test whether the acceptance meets consumer needs. The summaries are by group. These products were widely different and tested in differing cultures and situations. A common feature, however, is that all products are already commonly consumed by the communities and accepted, particularly with respect to the baseline products. Some products were found to be more acceptable (Gowe and Akpan in Benin, Kenkey in Ghana, Kong and Lanhouin in Senegal, Bissap and Baobab in Senegal), some of similar acceptance (Kitoza in Madagascar) and some were less acceptable (Kishk Sa'eedi in Egypt and Jaabi in Cameroon). Ways forward are discussed in all cases. Group 1: The reengineered group 1 products had mixed acceptance to consumers. Ones that were highly accepted were the reengineered Akpan which was highly accepted regardless of age, gender, socio- professional category and possessions (goods) and the majority (84.9%) expressed an interest for purchasing the reengineered Akpan and the reengineered gowe (n=100 consumers) in Benin, which was strongly accepted and more so than the traditional gowe. However, the reengineered Kenkey in Ghana while being comparable acceptance to the traditional white kenkey this would only meet a niche market. However, for the reengineered Kishk Sa'eedi, it was less acceptable and the difference was due to sour taste and spicy flavour. Group 2:The group 2 products had mixed acceptance among consumers. In the case of Kong in and Lanhouin in Senegal, the reengineered products had improved acceptance while for kitoza in Madagascar, there was no improvement in acceptance apart from those in terms of quality and safety. More specifically, Kong made using liquid smoke novel technique (RLK) had by far the highest acceptance and could easily be integrated as part of the Senegalese cuisine. This shows that there is a potential for RLK on the Senegalese market. Two types of reengineered Lanhouin types (Lanhouin dry powder, Lanhouin dry fillet) were greatly acceptable and the powdered form more than the fillet. In the case of Kitoza, consumer acceptance studies showed that there was no significant difference between all samples tested. Group 3: Group 3 reengineered products had mixed acceptance among consumers. Re-engineered bissap (hibiscus drinks) in Senegal were positively appreciated by consumers in Senegal and better accepted than the traditional commercial infusion used as baseline comparison. However, the new drinks were not perceivably different from the baseline drink to consumers concerning both the traditional character and the nutritional and healthy attributes. The reengineered baobab drinks were positively appreciated by consumers in Senegal and significantly better appreciated than the traditional commercial ones earlier tested. Jaabi (Ziziphus mauritiana). The result is the proposition of a reengineered Yaabande presenting fine texture well appreciated by consumers. However, particle size was critical and this needed to be lower than 125µm. Due to this limit, processors have adopted the manual production of flour of particle size 250µm>Ø>125µm, which is less tiresome, though it appears in second rank in the preference of consumers. The detailed methodology for each product is given for Groups I, II and III respectively. Common to all of the methodologies is the Ethical assessment and consent which is listed as follows: Ethical assessment and consent. The studies have been assessed and approved by the University of Greenwich Research Ethics Committee and the Ethics Committee at CIRAD. Consent was sought from sensory panellists and from adult consumers participating in this study. Enumerators informed participants about the study and explained that their participation was entirely voluntary, that they could stop the interview at any point and that the responses would be anonymous....

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