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Breeding for increased nitrogen-use efficiency: A review for wheat (T. aestivum L.)

Cormier F., Foulkes J., Hirel B., Gouache D., Moënne-Loccoz Y., Le Gouis J.. 2016. Plant Breeding, 135 (3) : p. 255-278.

Nitrogen fertilizer is the most used nutrient source in modern agriculture and represents significant environmental and production costs. In the meantime, the demand for grain increases and production per area has to increase as new cultivated areas are scarce. In this context, breeding for an efficient use of nitrogen became a major objective. In wheat, nitrogen is required to maintain a photosynthetically active canopy ensuring grain yield and to produce grain storage proteins that are generally needed to maintain a high end-use quality. This review presents current knowledge of physiological, metabolic and genetic factors influencing nitrogen uptake and utilization in the context of different nitrogen management systems. This includes the role of root system and its interactions with microorganisms, nitrate assimilation and its relationship with photosynthesis as postanthesis remobilization and nitrogen partitioning. Regarding nitrogen-use efficiency complexity, several physiological avenues for increasing it were discussed and their phenotyping methods were reviewed. Phenotypic and molecular breeding strategies were also reviewed and discussed regarding nitrogen regimes and genetic diversity. (Résumé d'auteur)

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Physiologie végétale : nutrition; Fertilisation

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