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Mini-review on CRISPR-Cas9 and its potential applications to help controlling neglected tropical diseases caused by Trypanosomatidae

Minet C., Thévenon S., Chantal I., Solano P., Berthier D.. 2018. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 63 : p. 326-331.

DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.02.030

The CRISPR-Cas system, which was originally identified as a prokaryotic defense mechanism, is increasingly being used for the functional study of genes. This technology, which is simple, inexpensive and efficient, has aroused a lot of enthusiasm in the scientific community since its discovery, and every month many publications emanate from very different communities reporting on the use of CRISPR-Cas9. Currently, there are no vaccines to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) caused by Trypanosomatidae, particularly Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Animal African Trypanosomoses (AAT), and treatments are cumbersome and sometimes not effective enough. CRISPR-Cas9 has the potential to functionally analyze new target molecules that could be used for therapeutic and vaccine purposes. In this review, after briefly describing CRIPSR-Cas9 history and how it works, different applications on diseases, especially on parasitic diseases, are reviewed. We then focus the review on the use of CRISPR-Cas9 editing on Trypanosomatidae parasites, the causative agents of NTDs, which are still a terrible burden for human populations in tropical regions, and their vectors.

Mots-clés : trypanosoma; résistance aux maladies; résistance génétique; maladie des animaux; maladie de l'homme; zoonose

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