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Is kola tree the enemy of cocoa? A critical analysis of agroforestry recommendations made to ivorian cocoa farmers

Sanial E., Ruf F.. 2018. Human Ecology, 46 (2) : p. 159-170.

Cocoa production in Côte d'Ivoire (40% of the world market) has tripled in the past 35 years even as the country's forests are depleted. The chocolate industry, concerned about production so concentrated in one country and its dependence on the forest, is trying to convince smallholders to obtain 'cocoa certification.' This scheme, while couched in environmental terms, aims to increase cocoa yields and recommends the removal of kola trees from cocoa plots. This advice, ultimately largely ignored by the cocoa farmers, reflects a lack of understanding of farmer practices and kola tree's economic, social, and cultural role. The chocolate industry reveals its vision for agroforestry as limited to production and demonstrates an unwillingness to participate in the smallholder-driven innovation system that is transforming Ivorian cocoa cultivation.

Mots-clés : sociologie rurale; environnement socioéconomique; choix des espèces; diversification; système de culture; theobroma cacao; côte d'ivoire

Thématique : Systèmes et modes de culture; Economie de la production; Sociologie rurale et sécurité sociale

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