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Accumulation and transmission of alphasatellite, betasatellite and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in susceptible and Ty-1-resistant tomato plants

Conflon D., Granier M., Tiendrebeogo F., Gentit P., Peterschmitt M., Urbino C.. 2018. Virus Research, 253 : p. 124-134.

Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are frequently associated with alphasatellites and betasatellites in the Old World. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, one of the most damaging begomovirus species worldwide, was recently found associated with betasatellites in the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and in the Middle East region. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)/betasatellite associations were shown to increase TYLCV virulence in experimental conditions. The sustainability of TYLCV/satellite associations in tomato was assessed here by estimating accumulation levels of satellites in comparison to TYLCV, vector transmission efficiency, and by testing how far the popular Ty-1 resistance gene used in most TYLCV-resistant tomato cultivars in the Mediterranean Basin is effective against betasatellites. Three satellites previously isolated from okra in Burkina Faso¿of the species Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite and Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite¿were shown to accumulate at levels similar to, or higher than, the helper virus TYLCV-Mld in tomato plants from 32 to 150 days post inoculation (dpi). Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite (CLCuGB) reduced TYLCV-Mld accumulation whereas alphasatellites did not. Transmission tests were performed with B. tabaci from plants infected with TYLCV-Mld/CLCuGB- or TYLCV-Mld/Okra leaf curl Burkina Faso alphasatellite. At 32 dpi, both satellites were transmitted to more than 50% of TYLCV-infected test plants. Betasatellite transmission, tested further with 150 dpi source plants was successful in more than 30% of TYLCV-infected test plants. Ty-1 resistant tomato plants co-infected with TYLCV (¿Mld or ¿IL) and CLCuGB exhibited mild leaf curling and mosaic symptoms at the early stage of infection associated with a positive effect on TYLCV-IL accumulation, while resistant plants infected with TYLCV only, were asymptomatic. Together with previous experimental studies, these results further emphasize the potential risk of betasatellites to tomato cultivation, including with Ty-1 resistant cultivars.

Mots-clés : moyen orient; région méditerranéenne; provence-alpes-côte d'azur; burkina faso

Thématique : Maladies des plantes; Génétique et amélioration des plantes

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