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High-resolution genetic map and QTL analysis of growth-related traits of Hevea brasiliensis cultivated under suboptimal temperature and humidity conditions

Conson A.R.O., Taniguti C.H., Amadeu R.R., Andreotti I.A.A., de Souza L.M., dos Santos L.H.B., Rosa J.R.B.F., Mantello C.C., Da Silva C.C., José Scaloppi Junior E., Ribeiro R.V., Le Guen V., Garcia A.A.F., Gonçalves P.D.S., de Souza A.P.. 2018. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9 : 16 p..

DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2018.01255

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation is the main source of natural rubber worldwide and has been extended to areas with suboptimal climates and lengthy drought periods; this transition affects growth and latex production. High-density genetic maps with reliable markers support precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), which can help reveal the complex genome of the species, provide tools to enhance molecular breeding, and shorten the breeding cycle. In this study, QTL mapping of the stem diameter, tree height, and number of whorls was performed for a full-sibling population derived from a GT1 and RRIM701 cross. A total of 225 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 186 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to construct a base map with 18 linkage groups and to anchor 671 SNPs from genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to produce a very dense linkage map with small intervals between loci. The final map was composed of 1,079 markers, spanned 3,779.7 cM with an average marker density of 3.5 cM, and showed collinearity between markers from previous studies. Significant variation in phenotypic characteristics was found over a 59-month evaluation period with a total of 38 QTLs being identified through a composite interval mapping method. Linkage group 4 showed the greatest number of QTLs (7), with phenotypic explained values varying from 7.67 to 14.07%. Additionally, we estimated segregation patterns, dominance, and additive effects for each QTL. A total of 53 significant effects for stem diameter were observed, and these effects were mostly related to additivity in the GT1 clone. Associating accurate genome assemblies and genetic maps represents a promising strategy for identifying the genetic basis of phenotypic traits in rubber trees. Then, further research can benefit from the QTLs identified herein, providing a better understanding of the key determinant genes associated with growth of Hevea brasiliensis under limiting water conditions.

Mots-clés : hevea brasiliensis; marqueur génétique; locus des caractères quantitatifs; génotype; séquence nucléotidique; carte génétique; eau disponible; facteur climatique; brésil

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