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Rosmarinic acid and its esters inhibit membrane cholesterol domain formation through an antioxidant mechanism based, in nonlinear fashion, on alkyl chain length

Sherratt S., Villeneuve P., Durand E., Mason R.P.. 2019. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA). Biomembranes, 1861 (3) : p. 550-555.

DOI: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2018.12.016

Background: Under conditions of oxidative stress, cholesterol aggregates into discrete membrane bilayer domains that precipitate the formation of extracellular crystals, a feature of advanced atheroma in cardiovascular disease. Therapeutic interventions using membrane-directed antioxidants, such as polyphenolic esters, may reduce cholesterol domains and crystal formation. In this study, the effects of rosmarinic acid (RC0) and rosmarinic esters, with alkyl chain lengths ranging from 4 to 16 carbons (RC4-RC16), on membrane lipid oxidation and cholesterol domain formation were investigated. Methods: Model membranes were prepared with 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and cholesterol at different cholesterol-to-phospholipid mole ratios (0.3:1, 0.9:1, and 1.2:1), in the absence or presence of each molecule and exposed to 72¿h of oxidation. Changes in lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) and cholesterol domain formation were measured using iodometric and small angle x-ray diffraction approaches, respectively. Results: Rosmarinic acid and its esters had differential effects on LOOH formation based on alkyl chain length. RC8 exhibited the greatest antioxidant effect, reducing LOOH levels by 82%, and inhibited cholesterol domain formation. By contrast, RC0 and RC16 failed to inhibit either LOOH formation or cholesterol domain formation. Conclusion: These data indicate that the membrane antioxidant and cholesterol domain inhibition activities of rosmarinic acid esters are dependent, nonlinearly, on alkyl chain length. The mechanism for this effect is attributed to the influence of alkyl chain length on the optimal depth of the polyphenols into the lipid bilayer for trapping free radicals.

Mots-clés : antioxydant; cholestérol; ester; polyphénol; lipide; membrane; maladie cardiovasculaire; acide rosmarinique

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