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Optimization of traps for live trapping of Pine Wood Nematode vector Monochamus galloprovincialis

Alvarez G., Etxebeste I., Gallego D., David G., Bonifacio L., Jactel H., Sousa E., Pajares J.. 2014. Journal of Applied Entomology, 139 (8) : p. 618-626.

The pine sawyer beetle Monochamus galloprovincialis, a secondary pest of pines in Europe and North Africa, has become important as it was identified as the vector in Europe of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD). An effective trapping system is needed, not only for monitoring the insect vector but also for direct control of its population. Trapping may also provide key information on the nematode load carried by the beetles, allowing early detection of infections, provided that captured beetles remain alive within the trap. Highly effective attractants have been developed in recent years that are commonly used in combination with diverse standard trap designs. In this study, several trap designs were developed and compared to commercial standard models in order to determine which designs maximized the number of attracted insects actually caught and the proportion of them remaining alive. In total, 12 trap designs were evaluated in five field experiments carried out in France, Spain and Portugal. Teflon coating applied to the whole trap and extended, ventilated collecting cups resulted in a significant improvement of trap performance. These modifications led to significant increases of pine sawyer catches, up to 275%, when applied to multiple-funnel or black cross-vane traps, compared to standard designs. Furthermore, a significant proportion of the captured beetles remained alive within the trap. These findings have been used to develop new commercial traps (Econex Multifunnel-12® and Crosstrap®; Econex, Murcia, Spain) available to forest managers. A model for insect survival within the trap was also fitted. Elapsed time between consecutive samplings, mean relative humidity and maximum radiation were the three most significant variables. Thus, traps should provide a suitable sample of live insects if sun exposure of the trap is minimized and a reasonable sampling schedule is implemented.

Mots-clés : afrique du nord; europe

Thématique : Ravageurs des plantes

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