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Improved diagnosis tools for the detection of yam virus in the sanitation process and unveil virus-free accessions for producers' exchange

Gomez R.M., Gélabale S., Filloux D., Gamiette F., Pavis C., Umber M.. 2016. In : Naves Michel (ed.), Angeon Valérie (ed.), Merlot Bérengère (ed.), Fahrasmane Louis (ed.), Diman Jean Louis (ed.), Labbé Patrick (ed.), Tra¿ond Patricia (ed.), Colon Wilfredo (ed.), Ozier Lafontaine Harry (ed.). Proceedings of the 52nd annual meeting of the Caribbean Food Crops Society: ¿Engineering Ecological Modernization of Agriculture / Exploring the Potential of Tropical Biological Resources for Innovation / Towards a Bio-Economic Development of Caribbean Co. Le Gosier : Caribbean Food Crops Society, p. 116-117. Caribbean food crops society annual meeting. 52, 2016-07-10/2016-07-16, Le Gosier (Guadeloupe).

French West Indies Biological Resources Centre for Tropical Plants (CRB-PT) maintains several germplasm collections of tropical crops and wild relatives, including a collection of more than 450 yam accessions (Dioscorea spp) in vitroculture. The purpose of this Centre is to conserve this biodiversity and distribute virus-free germplasm to end users. To this aim, virus populations infecting conserved accessions have been characterized and the diversity of intra and inter-species highlighted through the SafePGR project. Thus, three new virus generi have been found out (Ampelovirus, Macluravirus and Sadwavirus) besides those existing (Badnavirus [1], Potyvirus [2] and Potexvirus [3]). Efficient extraction method and appropriate detection tools have been created and/or optimized, then implemented for an initial diagnosis of the in vitro collection. Prevalence shown that more than 75% of yam accessions are infected by Potyvirus, 80% of D. alata, the most cultivated yam, are infected by the new yam virus Ampelovirus and Macluravirus are only present in D. alata. Only 14 accessions remained free of viruses, but the majority of the collection contained one, two or more of viruses, so the necessity to sanitize the infected germplasm. The sanitation process consists to submit shoots to thermotherapy at 34°C, then in excising apical meristem to obtain the regeneration of a new plant, expecting to be free of viruses. Using optimized detection tools, each new plant is diagnosed for the six viral generi. Up to now, the sanitation process leads to the achievement of 8 accessions completely virus-free. The development and yield of this improved plant material have to be evaluated by comparison of infected and sanitized accessions.

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