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Long-term follow-up of muscle lipid accumulation, mitochondrial activity and oxidative stress and their relationship with impaired glucose homeostasis in high fat high fructose diet-fed rats

Wang Y., Fouret G., Bonafos B., Blachnio-Zabielska A., Leroy T., Crouzier D., Baréa B., Gaillet S., Moro C., Lecomte J., Coudray C., Feillet-Coudray C.. 2019. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 64 : p. 182-197.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.10.021

Metabolic syndrome components, including obesity, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose homeostasis, become a major public health issue. Muscles play a predominant role in insulin-mediated glucose uptake, and high fat diets may negatively affect muscle function and homeostasis. This work aimed to study the time-course of muscle lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and their association to impaired glucose homeostasis in rats fed an obesogenic diet. Male Wistar rats were fed with a standard or a high fat/high fructose (HFHFr) diet and sacrificed on 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 weeks. Rats fed the HFHFr diet developed mild overweight, increased liver and adipose tissue weights and glucose intolerance. The impaired glucose homeostasis increased gradually with the HFHFr diet to become significant on the 12th and 16th weeks of diet. In parallel, the muscle lipid composition showed an increase in the saturated fatty acids and the monounsaturated fatty acids with a marked decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acids. The HFHFr diet also increased muscle contents of both diacylglycerols and Ceramides. Surprisingly, HFHFr diet did not induce major muscle mitochondrial dysfunction or oxidative stress. These results indicate that muscle lipid alterations, as well as impaired glucose homeostasis occur as early as the 8th week of HFHFr diet, increase to reach a plateau around the 12th¿16th weeks of diet, and then attenuate towards the end of study. At these diet treatment durations, muscle mitochondrial activity and oxidative stress remained unchanged and do not seem to have a major role in the observed impaired glucose homeostasis.

Mots-clés : surpoids; santé publique; régime alimentaire; glucose; homéostasie; stress oxydatif; modèle animal; rat

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