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Incidence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in mosquitoes and human patients in border provinces of Vietnam

Pham Thi K.L., Briant L., Gavotte L., Labbe P., Perriat-Sanguinet M., Cornillot E., Vu T.D., Nguyen T.Y., Tran V.P., Nguyen V.S., Devaux C., Afelt A., Tran C.C., Nga P.T., Tran N.D., Frutos R.. 2017. Parasites and Vectors, 10 : 10 p..

Background: Dengue virus remains a major threat in Vietnam, while chikungunya virus is expected to become one. Surveillance was conducted from 2012 to 2014 in Vietnam to assess the presence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in patients hospitalized with acute fever in five Vietnam provinces neighboring Lao PDR and Cambodia. Surveillance was extended to mosquitoes present in the vicinity of the patients' households. Results: A total 558 human serum samples were collected along with 1104 adult mosquitoes and 12,041 larvae from 2250 households. Dengue virus was found in 17 (3%) human serum samples and in 9 (0.8%) adult mosquitoes. Chikungunya virus was detected in 2 adult mosquitoes (0.18%) while no chikungunya virus was detected in humans. Differing densities of mosquito populations were found, with the highest in the Long An Province border with Cambodia. Long An Province also displayed the lowest rate of infection, despite a very high Breteau Index, high human population density and presence of the main cross border road system. The highest incidence was found in Dac Nong Province, where the Breteau and Container indices were the second lowest. Dengue virus was detected in five Aedes albopictus, three Aedes aegypti and one Culex vishnui. Chikungunya virus was detected in two Ae. aegypti. All infected mosquitoes belonged to haplotypes described in other parts of the world and a number of novel haplotypes were found among uninfected mosquitoes. Conclusions: Dengue is considered to be regularly introduced to Vietnam from Cambodia, mostly through human movement. The data reported here provides a complementary picture. Due to intensive international trade, long-distance transportation of mosquito populations may play a role in the regular importation of dengue in Vietnam through Ho Chi Minh City. It is important to decipher the movement of mosquitoes in Vietnam, not only at the Lao PDR and Cambodia borders but also through international trade routes. Mosquito surveillance programs should address and follow mosquito populations instead of mosquito species.

Mots-clés : déplacement; commerce; aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; culex; maladie transfrontière; Épidémiologie; flavivirus; virus de chikungunya; viet nam; cambodge; république démocratique populaire lao; culex vishnui; virus de la dengue

Thématique : Maladies des animaux; Autres thèmes

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