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Participatory methods in surveillance and control of foot-and-mouth disease: how to better involve the farmers at local scale?

Truong D.B.. 2017. Toulouse : Université de Toulouse, 274 p.. Thèse de doctorat -- Pathologie, toxicologie, génétique et nutrition, Thèse de doctorat -- Pathologie, toxicologie, génétique et nutrition.

This PhD thesis aimed at evaluating the contribution of participatory epidemiology (PE) to improve the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) surveillance and control activities, especially the involvement of farmers at local level. The first objective aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the FMD surveillance and vaccination strategy at local level by using PE approach. The second objective aimed at assessing the feasibility of applying PE tools to improve the involvement of farmers in the FMD surveillance in Vietnam. PE methods performed in our study included informal interviews (focus group and individual), scoring tools (pairwise ranking, proportional pilling, disease impact matrix scoring and disease signs matrix scoring), visualization tools (mapping, timeline, flow chart) and sociological tools called Q methodology. 122 focus groups, 467 individual interviews, 339 questionnaire surveys were performed during two field studies in 2014 and 2015. 409 sera and 152 probang samples were taken. Conventional questionnaire surveys, Bayesian modelling and laboratory test (ELISA and rtRT-PCR) was used to validate the performance of PE in FMD surveillance. Disease was considered as the most important issues in animal production. FMD was the most important disease for dairy cattle production, followed by haemorrhagic septicaemia. For beef cattle production, it was recorded in reverse order. The most important disease for pig production was porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome while FMD was ranked fourth. Farmers showed their abilities in differential diagnostic of important diseases based on its clinical symptoms. Sero-prevalence of FMD were estimated at 23% for population 1 (bordering with Cambodia) and 31% for population 2 (locating far from the border), respectively. Sensitivity and Specificity of PE were found to be 59% and 81%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive value were found to be 48% and 86% for population 1 and 58% and 81% for population 2, respectively. The presence of serotype A, lineage A/Asia/Sea-97 and serotype O with two separate lineages, O/ME-SA/PanAsia and O/SEA/Mya-98 supported virus circulation through trans-boundary animal movement activities. Dairy farms frequently applied quarantine, disinfection and vaccination as prevention methods. Beef farms preferred cleanliness and good husbandry management practices. Pig farms considered that all prevention methods had the same importance. Three distinct discourses ¿Believe¿, ¿Confidence¿, ¿Challenge¿, representing common perceptions among farmers and accounting for 57.3 % of the variance, were identified based on Q methodology. Farmers take vaccination decisions themselves without being influenced by other stakeholders and feel more secure after FMD vaccination campaigns. However, part of the studied population did not consider vaccination to be the first choice of prevention strategy. The benefitcost ratio of FMD vaccination for dairy cow production in large-scale and in small-scale and meat cattle production were 37.2, 30.0 and 7.3, respectively. The sensibility analysis showed that FMD vaccination was profitable for all of production types even through the increase of vaccine cost and decrease of market price of milk and slaughter cattle. From the focus groups organized at sentinel villages, 18 new villages were identified as potentially infected by FMD. 77 suspected animals were confirmed positive for FMD, with viral serotypes O and A. Sensitivity and specificity of participatory surveillance were recorded at 0.75 and 0.65, respectively. The effectiveness of PE in FMD surveillance system to detect outbreak in Vietnam was demonstrated. It was demonstrated that vaccination was the most effective and economic method to prevent FMD. Through the application of simple, adaptive tools which facilitate direct and active participation of farmers, PE allowed to reach a better acceptability of surveillance and to obtain qualified information.

Mots-clés : surveillance épidémiologique; fièvre aphteuse; viet nam; cambodge

Thématique : Maladies des animaux; Méthodes de relevé

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