Publications des agents du Cirad



Molle F., Tanouti O., Faysse N.. 2019. In : Molle François (ed.), Sanchis-Ibor Carles (ed.), Avella Reus Llorenç (ed.). Irrigation in the Mediterranean: Technologies, institutions and policies. Cham : Springer, p. 51-88. (Global Issues in Water Policy, 22).

Morocco has well developed irrigation facilities that range from small scale communal systems based on springs, qanats or river diversions to groundwater-based individual initiatives and large scale public schemes. Water demand policies ¿ e.g. water pricing, shift to drip irrigation, 'aquifer contracts' and other forms of participatory management ¿ have shown little potential in curbing overexploitation of resources in many basins. Expansion of irrigated areas and the priority given to productivity have taken their toll on the environment, favored commercial agriculture, and contributed to a net depletion of groundwater estimated at 1 billion m3/year. There is a need to better align agricultural development, water conservation, and environmental objectives. After a short historical perspective, this chapter first reviews a number of trends in the irrigation sector (modernization, development of groundwater resources, wastewater reuse and desalination), before turning to regulatory and institutional issues, including participatory management, economic tools, privatization and an examination of the Plan Maroc Vert. The threats posed by climate change, water scarcity, and environmental degradation are then discussed.

Mots-clés : irrigation; communauté rurale; politique de l'eau; gestion des eaux; maroc

Thématique : Ressources en eau et leur gestion; Irrigation

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