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Insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae complex populations from Burkina Faso, West Africa

Namountougou M., Soma D.D., Kientega M., Balboné M., Kaboré D.P.A., Drabo S., Coulibaly A.Y., Fournet F., Baldet T., Diabaté A., Dabiré R.K., Gnankine O.. 2019. Acta Tropica, 197 : 9 p..

DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105054

Vector control constitutes a fundamental approach in reducing vector density and the efficient option to break malaria transmission in Africa. Malaria vectors developed resistance to almost all classes of insecticides recommended by WHO for vector control in most places of African countries and may compromise the vector control strategies. This study updated the resistance status of Anopheles gambiae complex populations to insecticides recommended for vector control in the western part of Burkina Faso. Insecticide susceptibility bioassays were performed on seven natural populations of An. gambiae complex from western Burkina Faso in the 2016 rainy season using the WHO protocol. Biochemical assays were carried out according to the WHO protocol on the same populations to estimate detoxifying enzymes activities including non-specific esterases (NSEs), oxidases (cytochrome P450) and Glutathione-S-Transferases (GSTs). Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCRs) were performed for the identification of the An. gambiae complex species as well as the detection of kdr-w and ace-1 mutations. Susceptibility bioassays showed that An. gambiae complex was multi-resistant to pyrethroids, DDT and carbamates in almost all areas. The mortality rates ranged from 10 to 38%, 2.67 to 59.57% and 64.38 to 98.02% for Deltamethrin, DDT and Bendiocarb respectively. A full susceptibility (100%) to an organophosphate, the Chlorpyrifos-methyl, was observed at the different sites. Three (3) species of the An. gambiae complex were identified: An. gambiae s.s, An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis. The frequencies of the kdr-w mutation were highly widespread (0.66 to 0.98) among the three species of the complex. The ace-1 mutation was detected at low frequencies (0 to 0.12) in An. gambiae s.s and An. coluzzii. A high level of GSTs and NSEs were observed within the different populations of the An. gambiae complex. Several mechanisms of insecticide resistance were found simultaneously in the same populations of An. gambiae complex conferring high multi-resistance to DDT, Carbamate and Pyrethroids. The full susceptibility of An. gambiae complex to organophosphates is a useful data for the national malaria control program in selecting the most appropriate products to both maintain the effectiveness of vector control strategies and best manage insecticide resistance as well as developing new alternative strategies for the control of major malaria vectors in Burkina Faso.

Mots-clés : malaria; anopheles gambiae; résistance aux insecticides; maladie transmise par vecteur; pcr; pyréthrine de syntèse; ddt; carbamate; burkina faso

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