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Transformation des systèmes bovins laitiers en Indonésie : évaluation de la durabilité et des trajectoires des exploitations

Sembada P.. 2018. Montpellier : Montpellier SupAgro, 252 p.. Thèse de doctorat -- Ecologie fonctionnelle et sciences agronomiques, Thèse de doctorat -- Ecologie fonctionnelle et sciences agronomiques.

In Indonesia, rapid economic growth and awareness to consume nutritious food boost animal source foods, consumption, including dairy. As consequence, GDP from livestock sub-sector shows an enhancement to more than 56 percent during five years (2011-2015). Even though, it remains relatively low compared to other South East Asian countries, the demand of dairy products could not be covered by national production. The national production accounted for only around 835.000 tons in 2015 which is produced mostly by smallholder farms. Smallholder farms represent the vast majority of dairy cattle farms in Indonesia. With only 4 cows and less than 1 ha of cultivated land per household on average, dairy activities play an important role in securing the livelihoods of those smallholder farms. However, those farms face several constraints that preclude their sustainability. In that context, we wanted to research ¿in what condition smallholder dairy farms are more sustainable¿. Our approach aimed at evaluating the sustainability of smallholder farms and assessing the dynamics and changes in milk production systems, in West Java Province. The first phase of our study (2014) was to identify the role of a local dairy development project and the needs of the dairy farms. We collected data from 61 farms through formal survey and from milk cooperative The second phase (2015-2016) was to evaluate the sustainability of smallholder dairy farms. After an extensive literature review, we carried out in-depth interviews with experts and local stakeholders (researchers, lecturers, government, cooperative, NGO, farmers) in order to propose six main indicators of sustainability scoring from 0 to 100. We then conducted a formal survey of 355 farmers that allowed us to quantify those indicators. The third phase (2016-2017) was to understand the dynamics of dairy farming systems. Based on the results of the formal survey of 355 farmers, we built a farm typology and characterized each type of farm. We then selected 20 farms which represented each type of farm for in-depth interviews to understand their farm trajectories. From our study, we want to underline 3 main results. First, we show the importance of providing trainings and technical support for the development of farmers' livelihoods. Second, we note that the level of capital and the diversification of the activities on farm both play important roles in the sustainability of the farms. Third, if mixed crop-livestock systems remain stable in terms of milk production, specialized farms with higher capital endowment increased their herd size rapidly. To conclude, farmers with diversified activity show better sustainability performances than specialized ones, but their contribution to national production increases more slowly. Specialized farm might play a key role to support national production due to rapid increase of the dairy herd. Nevertheless, in a dairy development policy to supply national market, to focus only on those specialized farms could not be relevant. Due to the high number, small-scale farms are important to reducing poverty, to opening job opportunity, to ensuring nutrition and to providing national market. In the future, dairy policies should give more emphasis to smallholders' trainings and credit programs and to provide relevant strategies considering the farm type, the sustainability pattern, the farm trajectories in order to have sustainable development.

Mots-clés : enquête sur exploitations agricoles; activités génératrices de revenus; formation agricole; agriculture durable; polyculture élevage; lait; exploitation agricole familiale; bovin laitier; java; indonésie

Thématique : Elevage - Considérations générales; Economie familiale et artisanale; Systèmes et modes de culture

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