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Crop plants with improved culture and quality traits for food, feed and other uses

Nogue F., Vergne P., Chèvre A.M., Chauvin J.E., Bouchabke-Coussa O., Déjardin A., Chevreau E., Hibrand-Saint Oyant L., Mazier M., Barret P., Guiderdoni E., Sallaud C., Foucrier S., Devaux P., Rogowsky P.. 2019. Transgenic Research, 28 (2) : p. 65-73. OECD Conference on Genome Editing: Applications in Agriculture ¿ Implications for Health, Environment and Regulation, 2018-06-28/2018-06-29, Paris (France).

The large French research project GENIUS (2012¿2019, https://www6.inra.genius-project_eng/) provides a good showcase of current genome editing techniques applied to crop plants. It addresses a large variety of agricultural species (rice, wheat, maize, tomato, potato, oilseed rape, poplar, apple and rose) together with some models (Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, Physcomitrella). Using targeted mutagenesis as its work horse, the project is limited to proof of concept under confined conditions. It mainly covers traits linked to crop culture, such as disease resistance to viruses and fungi, flowering time, plant architecture, tolerance to salinity and plant reproduction but also addresses traits improving the quality of agricultural products for industrial purposes. Examples include virus resistant tomato, early flowering apple and low-amylose starch potato. The wide range of traits illustrates the potential of genome editing towards a more sustainable agriculture through the reduction of pesticides and to the emergence of innovative bio-economy sectors based on custom tailored quality traits.

Mots-clés : agriculture durable; agroécologie; résistance aux facteurs nuisibles; résistance aux maladies; génomique; france

Thématique : Génétique et amélioration des plantes; Systèmes et modes de culture

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