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Influence of fermentation by different microflora consortia on pulque and pulque bread properties

Kuligowski M., López Otero R., Polanowska K., Montet D., Nowak J.. 2019. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99 (14) : p. 6307-6314.

DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9907

BACKGROUND: Pulque bread is a traditional Mexican product obtained by fermentation using microflora present only in pulque. In this study, the possibility of creating a pulque microbial consortium under laboratory conditions and its applications were evaluated. A laboratory-made consortium was compared with a consortium originating in Mexico in bread and pulque production. They were tested in various growth medium systems: pulque made from agave sap and malt extract, Mexican wheat and rye pulque bread, and European wheat and rye bread. RESULTS: Depending on the growth medium, consortiums showed differing influence on many factors, such as specific volume, weight loss after baking, soluble proteins, and crust and crumb color. Indigenous starters increased sensorial acceptance of pulque and Mexican rye bread, decreased pH, and increased titratable acidity of the breads at the highest level whereas laboratory consortia improved sensory acceptance of wheat breads. The laboratory-prepared starter in some cases improved antiradical activity. All pulques received similar consumer evaluations. However, malt pulque was the least appreciated beverage. CONCLUSION: The results show the possibility of creating a pulque microbial consortium under laboratory conditions. Depending on the flour type and the breadmaking technique, the use of a particular microbial consortium allowed modification of certain physicochemical parameters. In conclusion, it is feasible to modify bread parameters to obtain features corresponding to consumer demands by using an appropriate microflora, pulque, or flour type. Moreover, this research describes, for the first time, the use of rye malt for pulque and rye flour for pulque bread preparation as raw materials.

Mots-clés : pain; fermentation; antioxydant; mexique

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