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Comparative study of fatty acid and sterol profiles for the investigation of potential milk fat adulteration

Nurseitova M.A., Amutova F.B., Zhakupbekova A.A., Omarova A.S., Kondybayev A.B., Bayandy G.A., Akhmetsadykov N., Faye B., Konuspayeva G.. 2019. Journal of Dairy Science, 102 (9) : p. 7723-7733.

Milk fat adulteration is a common issue in Central Asia. To assess the current situation in the commercial milk market, 17 milk samples were checked for fatty acid (FA) and sterol profiles to detect potential adulteration using multivariate analysis. Analysis of FA and sterols was performed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection, respectively. Cluster analysis of FA profiles revealed 3 types of milk samples: (1) samples containing a higher proportion of short-chain FA, (2) samples containing a higher proportion of long-chain FA, and (3) samples with significant amounts of C18 FA. Analysis of sterols showed that samples included (1) milk fat containing 100% cholesterol, sometimes with traces of phytosterols, (2) milk fat with high proportions of ?-sitosterol and campesterol, and (3) milk fat containing high proportions of brassicasterol. We found significant relationships between FA profiles and sterol profiles. The profiles were compared with vegetable oil patterns reported in the literature. More than 50% of the samples appeared to be counterfeited. We conclude that identification of adulteration in milk can be based solely on determination of sterol patterns.

Mots-clés : pasteurisation; stérol; acide gras; adultération des aliments homme; lait; asie centrale

Thématique : Composition des produits alimentaires; Traitement et conservation des produits alimentaires; Agro-industrie

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