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Comparison of progress of brown rust and orange rust and conditions conducive for severe epidemic development during the sugarcane crop season in Florida

Sanjel S., Chaulagain B., Small I.M., Comstock J.C., Hincapie M., Raid R.N., Rott P.. 2019. Plant Disease, 103 (5) : p. 825-831.

DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-05-18-0862-RE

Brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala) and orange rust (caused by P. kuehnii) are two major diseases of sugarcane in Florida. To better understand the epidemiology of these two rusts, disease severity and weather variables were monitored for two seasons in cultivars CL90-4725 (susceptible to brown rust and resistant to orange rust) and CL85-1040 (susceptible to orange rust and resistant to brown rust). Brown rust was most severe during mid-May to mid-July, whereas orange rust severity peaked during two periods: mid-May to early August and then November to December. Overall, disease severity was higher for orange rust than for brown rust. Maximum disease severity was correlated with the number of hours at night with an average temperature of 20 to 22.2°C for brown rust one season and orange rust both seasons. Slightly higher correlation was obtained when relative humidity above 90% was included in the number of hours at night with an average temperature of 20 to 22.2°C for brown rust but not orange rust, suggesting that leaf wetness is not a limiting factor for either disease in Florida. Epidemics of brown rust began at lower night temperatures (16.7 to 22.2°C) in one season, but epidemics of orange rust lasted longer under higher temperatures. The correlation of rust severity on recently emerged leaves with conducive temperatures recorded in 10-, 20-, or 30-day windows starting 7 days before disease assessment suggested that earlier inoculum production is needed to create severe epidemics that result in yield loss.

Mots-clés : puccinia melanocephala; puccinia; canne à sucre; Épidémiologie; récolte; saison; température; floride; États-unis

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