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Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

Manso-Silvan L., Thiaucourt F.. 2019. In : Kardjadj Moustafa (ed.), Diallo Adama (ed.), Lancelot Renaud (ed.). Transboundary animal diseases in Sahelian Africa and connected regions. Cham : Springer, p. 439-458.

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-25385-1_21

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, is an OIE-listed disease affecting goats and wild ungulate species. CCPP is present in Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia, but its exact distribution is unknown, particularly in Asia. It is enzootic in the Middle East and East Africa, while it has only been sporadically reported in North and Central Africa and, though suspected, has never been identified in West Africa. In addition, there are very few studies reporting the prevalence and losses induced by CCPP, which are greatly underestimated. This uncertainty over the distribution and impact of CCPP is partly due to the fastidious nature of its etiologic agent, which is difficult to identify, particularly when it circulates in an insidious, mild, or asymptomatic form, favored by the use of antibiotic treatments. However, specific molecular and serological tests are now available for the diagnosis of CCPP, even in the absence of isolation. The main limitation of CCPP surveillance remains the lack of awareness by veterinary services. Vaccines based on inactivated antigens in saponin can induce good protection and their variable quality may now be assessed using a specific ELISA. However, they are very expensive, and there is a paucity of vaccine producers to satisfy their demand. Efforts must urgently be directed to the development of cheaper, quality-controlled vaccines to be extensively used in the field. The global campaign to eradicate ¿peste des petits ruminants¿ by 2030 may be a great opportunity to target other goat diseases such as CCPP.

Mots-clés : pleuropneumonie contagieuse caprine; mycoplasma capricolum; maladie transfrontière; test elisa; vaccin; diagnostic; chèvre; ongule; afrique; moyen orient; asie centrale; afrique du nord; afrique centrale; afrique orientale

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