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Rift Valley Fever: One health at play?

Lancelot R., Cetre-Sossah C., Hassan O.A., Yahya B., Ould Elmamy B., Fall A.G., Lo M.M., Apolloni A., Arsevska E., Chevalier V.. 2019. In : Kardjadj Moustafa (ed.), Diallo Adama (ed.), Lancelot Renaud (ed.). Transboundary animal diseases in Sahelian Africa and connected regions. Cham : Springer, p. 121-148.

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-25385-1_8

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral infection mostly encountered in Africa. In its acute form, it severely affects domestic and wild ruminants, dromedaries, and humans. It is considered as an emerging disease, with increased frequency in several regions, and a spread potential to many areas under the influence of two main drivers: environmental (including climatic) changes and animal mobility (livestock trade, transhumance). In this chapter, we discuss the peculiarities of RVF epidemiology in Sahelian Africa and we show how the joint influence of these two drivers may trigger RVF epidemics. The public health impact of RVF can be severe, with tens of thousands of human cases and hundreds of fatalities recorded during large epidemics. Beyond its direct, negative effects on public and animal health, RVF has large economic consequences related to bans on livestock importation from infected countries. Solutions are available to improve surveillance and control of RVF in Sahelian Africa according to well-defined, risk-based strategies. The implementation of coordinated actions between Public Health and Animal Health authorities would represent an important advance in the One Health joint approach of RVF for better prevention, early detection, and reaction.

Mots-clés : virus de la fièvre de la vallée du rift; santé animale; migration animale; Épidémiologie; surveillance épidémiologique; contrôle de maladies; Évaluation de l'impact; fièvre de la vallée du rift; sahel

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