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Sustainable production of natural biocidal extracts from two Piperaceae in Reunion Island

Deguine J.P., Ajaguin Soleyen C., Bialecki A., Atiama-Nurbel T., Beaudemoulin H., Carrière J., Chiroleu F., Clerc P., Cortesero A.M., Couillerot O., Doizy A., Dorla E., Fillâtre J., Ginglinger J.F., Graindorge R., Grondin I., Kwan Tat T., Ligonière A., Laurent P., Marchand P., Tostain G.. 2019. Marrakech : Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 1 p.. Symposium on Plant BioProtection Sciences and Technologies. 2, 2019-11-19/2019-11-22, Marrakech (Maroc).

The Biopiper project is a French Innovation and Partnership project that took place in Reunion Island from 2015 to 2018. Its purpose was to produce natural extracts of two Piperaceae (Peperomia borbonensisand Piper borbonense) in a sustainable approach, for a use in the context of agroecological crop protection. There were 3 general objectives: (1) Synergize the skills of partners withcomplementary mandates on the use of endemic plants; (2) Design and implement sustainable production of both plant extracts and evaluate their efficacy as biocontrol agents; (3) Disseminate and enhance theobtained results and products. The project partners were: Association Réunionnaise pour la Modernisation de l'Economie Fruitière, Légumière et Horticole (ARMEFLHOR); Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD); Institut Technique de l'Agriculture Biologique(ITAB); Plant Advanced Technologies (PAT); Société Horticole de Bassin Plat (SHBP); Université de Rennes 1; Université de La Réunion. The project was structured around fouractions. Action 1 made it possible to design, develop and optimise the productionof the two Piperaceae to ensure optimal production of foliar biomass. Action 2 made it possible to produce and characterize phytochemical extracts of different ecotypes of wild and cultivated plants. Action 3 measured the biocidal efficacy of extracts on various crop pests (bacteria, arthropods) of a generic nature and of economic importance in Reunion Island and at the French national level. On fruit flies, which are formidable pests worldwide, LD 50 and LD 95 (lethal doses of 50% and 95% of the population) were measured on fivespecies (Zeugodacus cucurbitae, Bactrocera zonata, Bactrocera dorsalis, Ceratitis quiliciiand Neoceratitis cyanescens), with essential oil-based extracts. Analysis of the LD 50 results showed differences between plants, ecotypes and types of extracts. LD 50 tests with essential oils were carried out on other economically important pests (Bemisia tabaci, Frankliniella occidentalis), a non-pest fly (Drosophila melanogaster). The essential oil of P. borbonensishas also been tested onvarious Brassicaceae pests (Delia radicum, Meligethes aeneus, Psylliodes chrysocephala). A biocidal effect was found on all insects tested with significant variations in sensitivity. Olfactometric tests were also carried out and revealed that the essential oil of P. borbonensisis not repellent. This result is encouraging and makes it possible to consider a targeted application of essential oil via bait in an "attract & kill" approach.Action 4 initiated the process of developing a regulatory folder for the commercial use of plant or extract production. Finally, the Biopiper project has made it possible to create an operational and original consortium in partnership in order to screen, for research or service purposes, the biocidal activity of extracts fromdifferent plant.

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