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Commercial biocontrol agents reveal contrasting comportments against two mycotoxigenic fungi in cereals: Fusarium Graminearum and Fusarium Verticillioides

Pellan L., Durand N., Martinez V., Foutana A., Schorr-Galindo S., Strub C.. 2020. Toxins, 12 (3) : 22 p..

DOI: 10.3390/toxins12030152

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of commercialized biological control agents (BCAs) against two major mycotoxigenic fungi in cereals, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides, which are trichothecene and fumonisin producers, respectively. With these objectives in mind, three commercial BCAs were selected with contrasting uses and microorganism types (T. asperellum, S. griseoviridis, P. oligandrum) and a culture medium was identified to develop an optimized dual culture bioassay method. Their comportment was examined in dual culture bioassay in vitro with both fusaria to determine growth and mycotoxin production kinetics. Antagonist activity and variable levels or patterns of mycotoxinogenesis inhibition were observed depending on the microorganism type of BCA or on the culture conditions (e.g., different nutritional sources), suggesting that contrasting biocontrol mechanisms are involved. S. griseoviridis leads to a growth inhibition zone where the pathogen mycelium structure is altered, suggesting the diffusion of antimicrobial compounds. In contrast, T. asperellum and P. oligandrum are able to grow faster than the pathogen. T. asperellum showed the capacity to degrade pathogenic mycelia, involving chitinolytic activities. In dual culture bioassay with F. graminearum, this BCA reduced the growth and mycotoxin concentration by 48% and 72%, respectively, and by 78% and 72% in dual culture bioassay against F. verticillioides. P. oligandrum progressed over the pathogen colony, suggesting a close type of interaction such as mycoparasitism, as confirmed by microscopic observation. In dual culture bioassay with F. graminearum, P. oligandrum reduced the growth and mycotoxin concentration by 79% and 93%, respectively. In the dual culture bioassay with F. verticillioides, P. oligandrum reduced the growth and mycotoxin concentration by 49% and 56%, respectively. In vitro dual culture bioassay with different culture media as well as the nutritional phenotyping of different microorganisms made it possible to explore the path of nutritional competition in order to explain part of the observed inhibition by BCAs.

Mots-clés : gibberella zeae; fusarium; biological disease control [en]; contrôle de maladies; mycotoxine; agent de lutte biologique; efficacité; compétition biologique; interactions biologiques; test biologique; culture in vitro; fusarium verticilliodes

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