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Aquaculture at the crossroads of global warming and antimicrobial resistance

Reverter M., Sarter S., Caruso D., Avarre J.C., Combe M., Pepey E., Pouyaud L., Vega-Heredia S., De Verdal H., Gozlan R.E.. 2020. Nature Communications, 11 : 8 p..

DOI: 10.5061/dryad.dv41ns1tr

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-15735-6

In many developing countries, aquaculture is key to ensuring food security for millions of people. It is thus important to measure the full implications of environmental changes on the sustainability of aquaculture. We conduct a double meta-analysis (460 articles) to explore how global warming and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) impact aquaculture. We calculate a Multi-Antibiotic Resistance index (MAR) of aquaculture-related bacteria (11,274 isolates) for 40 countries, of which mostly low- and middle-income countries present high AMR levels. Here we show that aquaculture MAR indices correlate with MAR indices from human clinical bacteria, temperature and countries' climate vulnerability. We also find that infected aquatic animals present higher mortalities at warmer temperatures. Countries most vulnerable to climate change will probably face the highest AMR risks, impacting human health beyond the aquaculture sector, highlighting the need for urgent action. Sustainable solutions to minimise antibiotic use and increase system resilience are therefore needed.

Mots-clés : aquaculture; réchauffement global; changement climatique; limnologie; résistance aux antimicrobiens

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