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G x E interactions on yield and quality in Coffea arabica: New F1 hybrids outperform American cultivars

Marie L., Abdallah C., Campa C., Courtel P., Bordeaux M., Navarini L., Lonzarich V., Skovmand Bosselmann A., Turreira-Garcia N., Alpizar E., Georget F., Breitler J.C., Etienne H., Bertrand B.. 2020. Euphytica, 216 : 17 p..

DOI: 10.1007/s10681-020-02608-8

Conventional American cultivars of coffee are no longer adapted to global warming. Finding highly productive and stable cultivars in different environments without neglecting quality characteristics has become a priority for breeders. In this study, new Arabica F1 hybrids clones were compared to conventional American varieties in seven contrasting environments, for yield, rust incidence and volume of the canopy. The quality was assessed through size, weight of 100 beans, biochemical analysis (24 aroma precursors and 31 volatiles compounds) and sensory analysis. Conventional varieties were the least productive, producing 50% less than the best hybrid. The AMMI model analysis pointed out five hybrids as the most stable and productive. Two F1 hybrids clones, H1-Centroamericano and H16-Mundo Maya, were superior to the most planted American cultivar in Latin and Central America showing a high yield performance and stability performance. H1-Centroamerica and Starmaya contain more d-limonene than Caturra, while Starmaya contain more 3-methylbutanoic acid than the control. Those two latter volatiles compounds are linked with good cup quality in previous studies. In terms of sensory analysis, Starmaya and H1-Centroamericano scored better than control.

Mots-clés : coffea arabica; intéraction génotype environnement; rendement des cultures; qualité des aliments; hybride f1; vigueur hybride; amérique centrale; amérique latine

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