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Physical, nutritional, and sensory quality of rice-based biscuits fortified with safou (Dacryodes edulis) fruit powder

Eyenga E.F., Tang E.N., Achu M.B.L., Boulanger R., Mbacham W.F., Ndindeng S.A.. 2020. Food Science and Nutrition, 8 (7) : p. 3413-3424.

DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.1622

The reduction of postharvest losses in rice and safou is imperative to increase productivity in their respective value chains. In this study, fine broken rice grains were used to produce rice flour and subsequently rice-based biscuits. The biscuits were further fortified with safou powder, and the physical, nutritional, and sensory quality and stability during storage of the different types of biscuits were analyzed using standard methods. Fine or nonsandy biscuits had peak particle size of 500 µm, while medium (slightly sandy) and large (sandy) biscuits had peak particle sizes of 1,000 µm and 1,400 µm, respectively. The hardness varied from 5.7 ± 2.3 N for biscuits with large particles to 16.1 ± 4.4 N for biscuits with fine particles. Fortification of biscuits with sour safou increased the protein and amino acid content of the biscuits. Tryptophan was absent in both safou and the biscuits produced. There was an increase in phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese, and aluminum following fortification with safou. Nonsandy biscuits dissolved faster in the mouth (melt) during consumption than the other biscuits although most of the biscuits were perceived to be low in melting and buttery. Nonsandy biscuits were rated as ¿very good,¿ while slightly sandy and sandy were rated as ¿good.¿ Safou rice-based biscuits were perceived as ¿very good,¿ while simple rice biscuits were perceived as ¿good.¿ Fortification of rice biscuits with safou increased the protein, essential amino acid, and mineral contents of the biscuits with very appreciable taste. These biscuits can be used to help fight protein, iron, and zinc malnutrition and in mitigating postharvest losses of underutilized broken rice and safou especially sour safou.

Mots-clés : biscuit; dacryodes edulis; qualité des aliments; perte après récolte; fortification des aliments (homme); amélioration de qualités nutritives

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