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Seroprevalence and risk factors of canine distemper virus in the pet and stray dogs in Haa, western Bhutan

Dorji T., Tenzin T., Tenzin K., Tshering D., Rinzin K., Phimpraphai W., De Garine-Wichatitsky M.. 2020. BMC Veterinary Research, 16 : 6 p..

DOI: 10.1186/s12917-020-02355-x

Background: Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) is a highly contagious virus belonging to family Paramyxovirade, genus Morbillivirus and responsible for high morbidity and mortality in dogs worldwide. Infected domestic dogs can cause spillover infections to wild carnivores that are in contact. We conducted a seroprevalence survey of CDV in domestic dogs in two areas of western Bhutan (Haa district) located at the periphery of the Jigme Khesar Strict Nature Reserve, which is home to several endangered wildlife. A total of 238 serum samples, 119 each from the pet and stray dog, were collected during summer and winter seasons. Samples were tested for CDV antibodies using a sandwich enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) test. Results: The seroprevalence of CDV was found to be 11.3% (95% CI 6.7¿14.2). Dogs sampled during winter were less likely to test seropositive against CDV antibodies than those sampled during summer (adjusted odds ratio: -2.6; 95% CI: -¿1.2¿6.1). Dogs in good body condition were found to be more likely to test seropositive against CDV than dogs in poor condition and obese dogs (adjusted odds ratio: 2.2; 95% CI: 0.1¿5.9). There were no significant differences in the seroprevalence of CDV among different sexes, breeds and age classes, pet and stray dogs and between the two study sites. Conclusions: Our study indicates that CDV seroprevalence was equally distributed among pet and stray dogs. We suggest strengthening the management practices of dogs through responsible dog ownership, dog population management and waste management to minimize the transmission risk of infectious diseases to wildlife.

Mots-clés : zone protegée; chien; enquête pathologique; immunodiagnostic; paramyxoviridae; bhoutan; séroprévalence; canine distemper virus (cdv)

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