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Mass spectrometry-based detection and risk assessment of mycotoxin contamination of 'kankankan' used for roasted meat consumption in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

Yapo A.E., Strub C., Durand N., Constant Ahoua A.R., Schorr-Galindo S., Bonfoh B., Fontana A., Koussémon M.. 2020. Food Additives and Contaminants. Part A. Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment, 37 (9) : p. 1564-1578.

DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2020.1784468

'Kankankan' is a popular spice powder used to season roasted meat in Côte d'Ivoire. However, produced in a traditional way, the conditions of production and storage of kankankan favour the proliferation of mycotoxin-producing fungal strains. The aim of this study was to carry out an inventory of mycotoxin contamination of this spice powder and to assess risk exposure to consumers. In total, 75 samples of kankankan were collected from wholesalers (6), sellers of kankankan in the markets (35) and sellers of roasted meat (34) across three municipalities of Abidjan, the economic capital of Côte d'Ivoire. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to detect and quantify nine different mycotoxins. Dietary exposure was calculated by using estimated daily intake (EDI), whereas risk characterisation was assessed using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Aflatoxins and fumonisins were found in 99% of samples assessed, while contamination with beauvericin was proportionally lowest (28%). At all the three types of actors within the food production chain (wholesalers, kankankan sellers and roasted meat sellers) the mean concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in samples exceeded the European standard for spice mixtures, with concentrations reaching up to 502 µg/kg. The estimated daily intakes of aflatoxins observed in the different populations were above the recommended level of 0.017 ng kg-1 b.w. day-1. The MOES values for adolescents and adults were 8.10 and 12.78, respectively, well below the safe margin of 10,000. The co-occurrence of mycotoxins in kankankan samples together with high aflatoxin exposure to consumers represent a potential risk to public health, calling for immediate risk management and education of kankankan producers and consumers.

Mots-clés : Épice; spectrométrie de masse; Évaluation du risque; mycotoxine; contamination; côte d'ivoire

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