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The policyscape of agroforestry within Mediterranean protected landscapes in France

Therville C., Antona M., De Foresta H.. 2020. Sustainability Science, 15 : p. 1435-1448.

DOI: 10.1007/s11625-020-00821-x

Agroforestry systems (AFS) are presented as systems likely to meet a variety of interests from diverse stakeholders embodied in sectoral policies such as forestry or environment policies. However, they are in a process of being institutionalized in Europe through specific policy instruments mostly within agricultural policies. In this context, we investigated the agroforestry policyscape, meaning the social and spatial articulation between multiple policies impacting agroforestry along a Mediterranean landscape gradient from agricultural intensification to land abandonment. We focused on the necessary conditions to promote socio-political synergies between practices, actors and instruments to tackle agroforestry, from preexisting to emerging systems and issues in these landscapes. We worked in two Mediterranean protected areas, the Ventoux Biosphere Reserve and the Verdon Regional Nature Park, and conducted in-depth interviews with 50 practitioners and sectoral representatives from diverse policies directly affecting AFS. We identified five categories of AFS, some of them being traditional declining practices while other 'modern' forms are currently emerging with the ongoing agro-ecological transition. We highlighted that while stakeholders and policies from multiple social groups are interested in some AFS such as silvopastures, others AFS such as silvoarable systems are confined to a single social and political field, the agricultural one, or even ignored by policies such as grazed orchards. Regarding this agroforestry policyscape, we discuss opportunities for agroforestry development with issues of policies coordination, lack of instruments, and need for synergies with environmental or land-use planning policies.

Mots-clés : systèmes agroforestiers; agroforesterie; politique forestière; politique de l'environnement; politique agricole; conservation du paysage; paysage; zone protegée; gouvernance; france; région méditerranéenne; action collective

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