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Cirad

Rubber agroforestry systems in Kalimantan, Indonesia: impact assessment since 1994 and future prospects for agroforestry systems

Penot E.. 2020. In : Gitz V., Meybeck A., Ricci F., Belcher B., Brady M.A., Coccia F., Elias M., Jamnadass R., Kettle C., Larson A., Li Y., Louman B., Martius C., Minang P., Sinclair F., Sist P., Somarriba E. (editors). FTA 2020 Science Conference: Forests, trees and agroforestry science for transformational change: Book of abstracts. Nairobi : CGIAR, 1 p.. FTA Science Conference 2020, 2020-09-15/2020-09-17, Nairobi.

The SRAP research project (Smallholder Rubber Agroforestry Project) has been implemented by CIRAD/ICRAF/IRRI from 1994 to 2007 in West Kalimantan. The main objective was to replace old ageing and economically obsolete ¿jungle rubber¿, the traditional rubber based agroforestry systems based on unselected seedlings to clonal rubber agroforestry systems based on high rubber clone productivity and adapted to different local situations. From 1994 to 1997 were established more than 60 on farm trials plots with local farmers in order to test various tree and intercrops combinations. The study of these plots in 2020 provided some conclusions. Rubber agroforestry trials came right in time in 1994, with a strong demand from farmers for rubber systems using goof planting material with high productivity, clonal rubber, with low establishment cost and income diversification. But oil palm shemes with private estates came in 1997 with a very strong pressure from these companies (trough the policy of concessions) to release land in exchange of 2 ha of oil palm, therefore providing a lucrative alternative to rubber cultivation with full access to credit (but loss of land) and better return to labor. It is now time for rubber replantation as rubber is at the end of its lifespan, due also to the high impact of diseases and poor tapping practices. It was very interesting to engage an in-depth socio-economic survey involving all SRAP farmers, in order to assess the current situation of farmers' income (generated by oil palm/rubber and any other sources) and the farmers' ongoing and planned strategies as rubber remain a real alternative for income diversification and resilience. The use of Olympe software for income simulation and budget analysis is worth testing various strategies including agroforestry practices A prospective analysis provide an assessment of the impact of oil palm and rubber price volatility. Low rubber prices did not help in maintaining farmers' interest in rubber, however farmers know about rubber price volatility over the years and they are not willing to abandon rubber as crop diversification remains a priority. Beside the economic analysis of rubber-based agroforestry systems and role of oil palm in income diversification, three major questions are shaping the research agenda: i) what is the impact of local fruit production derived from agroforestry systems on food safety and diet quality of local families?, ii) What is the impact of timber production, both for self-consumption in households and marketing? Iii) To what extend the AF systems under study are able to provide better climatic resilience? This study is performed through the Plantation Priority 02 of the Forest, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA) programme and will contribute to the global comparative analysis of rubber smallholder supply chains of the GPSNR (Global Platform for Sustainable Natural Rubber)

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