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Crop protection practices and viral zoonotic risks within a One Health framework

Ratnadass A., Deguine J.P.. 2021. Science of the Total Environment, 774 : 17 p..

DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145172

Recent viral zoonotic epidemics have been attributed partially to the negative impact of human activities on ecosystem biodiversity. Agricultural activities, particularly conventional crop protection (CP) practices, are a major threat to global biodiversity, ecosystem health and human health. Here we review interactions between CP practices and viral zoonoses (VZs), the first time this has been done. It should be noted that a) VZs stand at the interface between human, animal and ecosystem health; b) some VZs involve arthropod vectors that are affected by CP practices; and c) some crop pests, or their natural enemies are vertebrate reservoirs/carriers of certain VZs, and their contact with humans or domestic animals is affected by CP practices. Our review encompasses examples highlighting interactions between VZs and CP practices, both efficiency improvement-based (i.e. conventional with agrochemical insecticides and rodenticides), substitution-based (i.e. mainly with physical/mechanical or biopesticidal pest control), and redesign-based (i.e. mainly with conservation biological pest control, including some forms of crop-livestock integration). These CP practices mainly target arthropod and vertebrate pests. They also target, to a lesser extent, weeds and plant pathogens. Conventional and some physical/mechanical control methods and some forms of biopesticidal and crop-livestock integration practices were found to have mixed outcomes in terms of VZ risk management. Conversely, practices based on biological control by habitat conservation of arthropod or vertebrate natural enemies, falling within the Agroecological Crop Protection (ACP) framework, result in VZ prevention at various scales (local to global, and short-term to long-term). ACP addresses major global challenges including climate resilience, biodiversity conservation and animal welfare, and helps integrate plant health within the extended ¿One Health¿ concept.

Mots-clés : protection des plantes; lutte biologique; santé publique; pratique culturale; lutte biologique contre les ravageurs; zoonose; virose; ravageur des plantes; one health

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