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Landscapes in motion: Linkages and feedbacks between landscape dynamics and human migration

Djoudi H., Locatelli B., Martius C.. 2020. In : Gitz V., Meybeck A., Ricci F., Belcher B., Brady M.A., Coccia F., Elias M., Jamnadass R., Kettle C., Larson A., Li Y., Louman B., Martius C., Minang P., Sinclair F., Sist P., Somarriba E. (editors). FTA 2020 Science Conference: Forests, trees and agroforestry science for transformational change: Book of abstracts. Bogor : CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA), p. 172-172. FTA 2020 Science Conference: Forests, trees and agroforestry science for transformational change, 2020-09-14/2020-09-25, Bogor (Indonésie).

Human migration and mobility have always been an important feature of how people interact with their environment and, in recent years, there has been an increased interest in understanding mobility drivers and effects. Yet links between mobility, migration and landscape changes have been largely overlooked in the landscape-related literature and the environmental impacts of human mobility are missing in the migration research field. This paper aims to fill those gaps by capturing and analyzing the diversity of linkages between human mobility or migration and landscape dynamics. These linkages can be framed in different ways. Mobility and migration induce significant changes in rural and urban areas, by direct demographic and social changes or indirectly through the investment of remittances in the landscape of origin. Using a pathways analysis approach, we examined different migration trajectories and their impact on the use and the management of ecosystems in several case studies in dryland areas. We explored the impacts of remittances on various human activities and ecosystem use or management. We also analyzed how knowledge, values and rules evolved along the migratory pathways and affect ecosystem management. The results highlight different types of feedback between human migration and social and ecological processes in the landscape of origin. They also show various feedback loops between migration and landscape recovery or degradation. Migration can induce adaptive or maladaptive pathways, which have profound consequences for landscape sustainable or unsustainable trajectories. Rather than conceptualizing mobility and landscape dynamics separately, development and landscape conservation policies need to better integrate mobility and migration in their analytical frames in order to achieve long-term, desired, landscape conservation and development outcomes.

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