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Management of wild boar populations in EU countries before and during the ASF crisis

Jori F., Massei G., Licoppe A., Ruiz-Fons F., Linden A., Václavek P., Chenais E., Rosell C.. 2021. In : Iacolina Laura (ed.), Penrith Mary-Louise (ed.), Bellini Silvia (ed.), Chenais Erika (ed.), Jori, Ferran (ed.), Montoya Maria (ed.), Ståhl Karl (ed.), Gavier-Widén Dolores (ed.). Understanding and combatting African Swine Fever. An European perspective. Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers, p. 197-228.

DOI: 10.3920/978-90-8686-910-7_5

In recent decades, wild boar populations have been increasing worldwide due to several potential causes, including human-induced and natural environmental changes and biological and ecological factors. In Europe, this phenomenon has several economic, social and environmental implications such as the increase of agricultural and forest damage, road traffic accidents and potential ecological impact on animal and plant biodiversity. In addition, wild boar population growth and expansion can contribute to the maintenance and dissemination of infectious pathogens affecting animal and human health. In this context, the emergence of African swine fever (ASF) in Europe has become a serious challenge for animal disease control. The high susceptibility of wild boar to ASF infections and the capacity of the virus to remain infective in wild boar carcasses require a combination of wildlife management and veterinary strategies in order to eradicate this virus from EU forests. The goal of this chapter is to provide a thorough overview of those efforts. After illustrating the current situation of wild boar populations in Europe, the chapter describes the different methods applied by wildlife managers in the absence of ASF. Subsequently, the chapter reviews different approaches and tools applied in the context of ASF control, with a particular focus on the strategies implemented by countries that were successful in their eradication, such as Belgium and the Czech Republic. The last section of the chapter highlights areas that require future research to improve ASF management in natural wild boar populations, which remains a serious challenge for the large majority of countries in the EU.

Mots-clés : sanglier; dynamique des populations; population animale; peste porcine africaine; impact sur l'environnement; impacts socio-économiques; virus peste porcine africaine; transmission des maladies; maladie transmissible par tiques; contrôle de maladies; europe; pays de l'union européenne

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