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Development of a model for the alcoholic fermentation of cocoa beans by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain

Kouame C., Loiseau G., Grabulos J., Boulanger R., Mestres C.. 2021. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 337 : 10 p..

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108917

The aromatic quality of chocolate requires the use of cocoa with high aromatic potential, this being acquired during the fermentation of cocoa beans. Traditional fermentation is still often carried out on a small scale with wild strains of yeasts and acetic bacteria and under poorly controlled conditions leading to cocoa quality ranging from best to worst. This study is the first part of a project aiming to control quality of cocoa to produce high aromatic quality chocolate by using a mixed starter of selected strains of yeast and acetic bacteria and by controlling the conditions of fermentation. To achieve this objective, a mathematical model of the alcoholic fermentation of cocoa beans has been developed. The growth, glucose consumption and ethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae LM strain in synthetic broth were modeled for the most important intrinsic (pH, glucose, ethanol, free nitrogen and oxygen levels) and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen level) fermentation parameters. The model was developed by combining the effects of individual conditions in a multiplicative way using the gamma concept. The model was validated in liquid synthetic medium at two different inoculation levels 104 and 106¿CFU/mL with an increase in temperature that recorded during spontaneous fermentations. The model clearly shows that the level of inoculation and the speed of the increase in temperature clearly drive yeast growth, while other factors including pH and ethanol, free nitrogen and oxygen levels have no significant impact on yeast growth.

Mots-clés : technologie alimentaire; fermentation alcoolique; fève de cacao; saccharomyces cerevisiae; qualité des aliments; fermentation; chocolat; Éthanol; glucose; levure

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