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Contrasting genetic diversity and structure among Malagasy Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum phylotype I populations inferred from an optimized Multilocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis scheme

Rasoamanana H., Ravelomanantsoa S., Yahiaoui N., Dianzinga N.T., Rebert E., Gauche M.M., Pecrix Y., Costet L., Rieux A., Prior P., Robene I., Cellier G., Guérin F., Poussier S.. 2020. PloS One, 15 (12) : 22 p..

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242846

The Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC), composed of three species and four phylotypes, are globally distributed soil-borne bacteria with a very broad host range. In 2009, a devastating potato bacterial wilt outbreak was declared in the central highlands of Madagascar, which reduced the production of vegetable crops including potato, eggplant, tomato and pepper. A molecular epidemiology study of Malagasy RSSC strains carried out between 2013 and 2017 identified R. pseudosolanacearum (phylotypes I and III) and R. solanacearum (phylotype II). A previously published population biology analysis of phylotypes II and III using two MultiLocus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) schemes revealed an emergent epidemic phylotype II (sequevar 1) group and endemic phylotype III isolates. We developed an optimized MLVA scheme (RS1-MLVA14) to characterize phylotype I strains in Madagascar to understand their genetic diversity and structure. The collection included isolates from 16 fields of different Solanaceae species sampled in Analamanga and Itasy regions (highlands) in 2013 (123 strains) and in Atsinanana region (lowlands) in 2006 (25 strains). Thirty-one haplotypes were identified, two of them being particularly prevalent: MT007 (30.14%) and MT004 (16.44%) (sequevar 18). Genetic diversity analysis revealed a significant contrasting level of diversity according to elevation and sampling region. More diverse at low altitude than at high altitude, the Malagasy phylotype I isolates were structured in two clusters, probably resulting from different historical introductions. Interestingly, the most prevalent Malagasy phylotype I isolates were genetically distant from regional and worldwide isolates. In this work, we demonstrated that the RS1-MLVA14 scheme can resolve differences from regional to field scales and is thus suited for deciphering the epidemiology of phylotype I populations.

Mots-clés : maladie bactérienne; bactérie pathogène; génétique des populations; variation génétique; Épidémiologie; flétrissement; pcr; madagascar; ralstonia pseudosolanacearum; haplotype

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