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Aspergillus flavus growth inhibition and aflatoxin B1 decontamination by Streptomyces isolates and their metabolites

Campos-Avelar I., Colas De La Noue A., Durand N., Cazals G., Martinez V., Strub C., Fontana A., Schorr-Galindo S.. 2021. Toxins, 13 (5) : 22 p..

DOI: 10.3390/toxins13050340

Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen produced by Aspergillus flavus, mainly during grain storage. As pre-harvest methods are insufficient to avoid mycotoxin presence during storage, diverse curative techniques are being investigated for the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin detoxification. Streptomyces spp. represent an alternative as they are a promising source of detoxifying enzymes. Fifty-nine Streptomyces isolates and a Streptomyces griseoviridis strain from the commercial product Mycostop®, evaluated against Penicillium verrucosum and ochratoxin A during previous work, were screened for their ability to inhibit Aspergillus flavus growth and decrease the aflatoxin amount. The activities of bacterial cells and cell-free extracts (CFEs) from liquid cultures were also evaluated. Fifty-eight isolates were able to inhibit fungal growth during dual culture assays, with a maximal reduction going down to 13% of the control. Aflatoxin-specific production was decreased by all isolates to at least 54% of the control. CFEs were less effective in decreasing fungal growth (down to 40% and 55% for unheated and heated CFEs, respectively) and aflatoxin-specific production, with a few CFEs causing an overproduction of mycotoxins. Nearly all Streptomyces isolates were able to degrade AFB1 when growing in solid and liquid media. A total degradation of AFB1 was achieved by Mycostop® on solid medium, as well as an almost complete degradation by IX20 in liquid medium (6% of the control). CFE maximal degradation went down to 37% of the control for isolate IX09. The search for degradation by-products indicated the presence of a few unknown molecules. The evaluation of residual toxicity of the tested isolates by the SOS chromotest indicated a detoxification of at least 68% of AFB1's genotoxicity.

Mots-clés : substance cancérigène; aflatoxine b1; aspergillus flavus; streptomyces; inhibition de croissance; mycotoxine; stockage des récoltes; détoxification; biodégradation

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