Publications des agents du Cirad


Biocontrol agents: Toolbox for the screening of weapons against mycotoxigenic Fusarium

Pellan L., Dieye C.A.T., Durand N., Fontana A., Strub C., Schorr-Galindo S.. 2021. Journal of Fungi, 7 (6) : 30 p..

DOI: 10.3390/jof7060446

The aim of this study was to develop a set of experiments to screen and decipher the mechanisms of biocontrol agents (BCAs), isolated from commercial formulation, against two major mycotoxigenic fungi in cereals, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These two phytopathogens produce mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health and are responsible for the massive use of pesticides, for the protection of cereals. It is therefore essential to better understand the mechanisms of action of alternative control strategies such as the use of BCAs in order to optimize their applications. The early and late stages of interaction between BCAs and pathogens were investigated from germination of spores to the effects on perithecia (survival form of pathogen). The analysis of antagonist activities of BCAs revealed different strategies of biocontrol where chronological, process combination and specialization aspects of interactions are discussed. Streptomyces griseoviridis main strategy is based on antibiosis with the secretion of several compounds with anti-fungal and anti-germination activity, but also a mixture of hydrolytic enzymes to attack pathogens, which compensates for an important deficit in terms of spatial colonization capacity. It has good abilities in terms of nutritional competition. Trichoderma asperellum is capable of activating a very wide range of defenses and attacks combining the synthesis of various antifungal compounds (metabolite, enzymes, VOCs), with different targets (spores, mycelium, mycotoxins), and direct action by mycoparasitism and mycophagy. Concerning Pythium oligandrum, its efficiency is mainly due to its strong capacity to colonize the environment, with a direct action via microbial predation, stimulation of its reproduction at the contact of pathogens and the reduction of perithecia formation.

Mots-clés : agent de lutte biologique; lutte biologique; gibberella zeae; pathologie végétale; mycotoxine; interactions biologiques; pythium oligandrum; champignon pathogène; fusarium verticillioides; trichoderma asperellum; streptomyces griseoviridis

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