Publications des agents du Cirad

Cirad

Towards a starter culture for cocoa fermentation by selection of acetic acid bacteria

Farrera L., Colas De La Noue A., Strub C., Guibert B., Kouame C., Grabulos J., Montet D., Teyssier C.. 2021. Fermentation, 7 (1) : 19 p..

DOI: 10.3390/fermentation7010042

Acetic acid bacteria are involved in many food and beverage fermentation processes. They play an important role in cocoa bean fermentation through their acetic acid production. They initiate the development of some of the flavor precursors that are necessary for the organoleptic quality of cocoa, and for the beans' color. The development of starter cultures with local strains would enable the preservation of the microbial biodiversity of each country in cocoa-producing areas, and would also control the fermentation. This approach could avoid the standardization of cocoa bean fermentation in the producing countries. One hundred and thirty acetic acid bacteria were isolated from three different cocoa-producing countries, and were identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence. The predominate strains were grown in a cocoa pulp simulation medium (CPSMAAB) in order to compare their physiological traits regarding their specific growth rate, ethanol and lactic acid consumption, acetic acid production, and relative preferences of carbon sources. Finally, the intraspecific diversity of the strains was then assessed through the analysis of their genomic polymorphism by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting. Our results showed that Acetobacter pasteurianus was the most recovered species in all of the origins, with 86 isolates out of 130 cultures. A great similarity was observed between the strains according to their physiological characterization and genomic polymorphisms. However, the multi-parametric clustering results in the different groups highlighted some differences in their basic metabolism, such as their efficiency in converting carbon substrates to acetate, and their relative affinity to lactic acid and ethanol. The A. pasteurianus strains showed different behaviors regarding their ability to oxidize ethanol and lactic acid into acetic acid, and in their relative preference for each substrate. The impact of these behaviors on the cocoa quality should be investigated, and should be considered as a criterion for the selection of acetic acid bacteria starters.

Mots-clés : fermentation; culture starter; theobroma cacao; acide acétique; bactérie acétique; fermentation acétique; bactérie lactique; polymorphisme génétique; acetobacter pasteurianus

Documents associés

Article (a-revue à facteur d'impact)

Agents Cirad, auteurs de cette publication :