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Breeding for the main agricultural farming of Arabica coffee

Bertrand B., Villegas Hincapie A.M., Marie L., Breitler J.C.. 2021. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 5 : 15 p..

DOI: 10.3389/fsufs.2021.709901

So far, the main Arabica coffee breeding programmes in Latin America have focused on the selection of varieties adapted to intensive full-sun farming systems. Meanwhile, little attention has been paid to breeding varieties specifically adapted to shade, which is the main characteristic of agroforestry systems (AFS). Yet the specialty coffee sector is currently expanding and seeking specific sensory qualities related to exotic varieties and no breeding programme exists to create new varieties for this type of market. Two trials were set up: one in full sun and the other under shade. F1 hybrids and their parents (pure lines and Ethiopian accessions) were studied in a factorial-crossing design to measure tree volume, yield (3 years), bean size, the bean NIRS signature and the final cupping score. Bean size and the final cupping score seemed to be relatively unaffected by shading. Strong maternal heritability was observed for bean size. In the trials, F1 hybrids produced ¿75¿80%¿ more than the maternal lines and ¿40¿50%¿ more than the male parents in the shade trial and in the full-sun trial, respectively. By choosing the F1 hybrid, it is possible to increase productivity under both shade and full sun while simultaneously achieving good sensory qualities. Selecting a F1 hybrid for ¿specialty coffee¿ seems exceptional. This raises a fundamental issue concerning the maternal heritability of seed biochemical composition. We conclude that selection under shade is essential for the selection of varieties adapted to AFS.

Mots-clés : amélioration des plantes; coffea arabica; systèmes agroforestiers; système d'exploitation agricole; choix des espèces; ombrage; variété; hybride f1; colombie; programme d¿amélioration

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