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Adjustment of K+ fluxes and grapevine defense in the face of climate change

Monder H., Maillard M., Chérel I., Dagmar Zimmermann S., Paris N., Cuellar T., Gaillard I.. 2021. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22 (19) : 19 p..

DOI: 10.3390/ijms221910398

Grapevine is one of the most economically important fruit crops due to the high value of its fruit and its importance in winemaking. The current decrease in grape berry quality and production can be seen as the consequence of various abiotic constraints imposed by climate changes. Specifically, produced wines have become too sweet, with a stronger impression of alcohol and fewer aromatic qualities. Potassium is known to play a major role in grapevine growth, as well as grape composition and wine quality. Importantly, potassium ions (K+) are involved in the initiation and maintenance of the berry loading process during ripening. Moreover, K+ has also been implicated in various defense mechanisms against abiotic stress. The first part of this review discusses the main negative consequences of the current climate, how they disturb the quality of grape berries at harvest and thus ultimately compromise the potential to obtain a great wine. In the second part, the essential electrical and osmotic functions of K+, which are intimately dependent on K+ transport systems, membrane energization, and cell K+ homeostasis, are presented. This knowledge will help to select crops that are better adapted to adverse environmental conditions.

Mots-clés : physiologie végétale; adaptation aux changements climatiques; changement climatique; potassium; stress abiotique; santé des plantes; mécanisme de défense; vitis vinifera; vigne; transport des substances nutritives

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