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Reunion Island, a sentinel territory for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria surveillance in the South-Western Indian Ocean: A retrospective survey using hospitalized patient screening, 2015¿2017

Gay N., Lugagne N., Miltgen G., Belmonte O., Cardinale E.. 2020. BMC Public Health, 20 (1) : 6 p..

DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-09591-8

Background: In 2015, antimicrobial resistance was identified as a public health priority for the South-Western Indian Ocean (SWIO) (i.e. Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte (France), Reunion Island (France), and Seychelles). However, in 2020, colonization rates of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) in human populations on most islands in SWIO were still not known and neither hospital nor community colonization rates had been estimated. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of colonization of six ARB groups in hospitalized patients residing in the SWIO territories. The six groups comprise extended-spectrum betalactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and both ceftazidime and/or imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (ACB), and ceftazidime and/or imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas spp. (PSA)). Methods: Based on comprehensive hospital laboratory ARB screening data, we provide the first estimation of ARB colonization rates in hospitalized patients residing in SWIO (2015¿2017). Using ARB colonization rates in Reunion Island (France) as the reference for estimating odds ratio, we identified at risk patients based on their territory of residence. Results: The survey pointed to significantly higher overall ARB colonization rates in patients from Comoros, Madagascar, Mayotte, and Seychelles compared to Reunion Island as the reference. Extended-spectrum betalactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae was found to be the most common ARB group colonizing patients from SWIO territories. The highest MRSA colonization rates were observed in patients from Mayotte and Seychelles. Colonization by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was highest in patients from Mauritius. Conclusion: These results identify high ARB colonization rates in hospitalized patients from SWIO territories that require further investigation, particularly CRE in Mauritius and MRSA in Seychelles and Mayotte. This study is the first step toward the implementation of a broader regional ARB surveillance system.

Mots-clés : surveillance épidémiologique; résistance aux antimicrobiens; santé publique; Épidémiologie; réunion; seychelles; madagascar; mayotte; maurice; comores

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