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Improving the nutritional quality of pulses via germination

Avezum L., Rondet E., Mestres C., Achir N., Malode Y., Gibert O., Lefevre C., Hemery Y.M., Verdeil J.L., Rajjou L.. 2022. Food Reviews International : 35 p..

DOI: 10.1080/87559129.2022.2063329

Germination is a traditional process and a re-emerging trend in healthy foods, resulting a progressively increase in scientific research on their nutritional traits and phytochemical contents. This review examines the physiological and biochemical changes during the germination sensu stricto in pulses, taking into consideration the genotype, environmental conditions, hormone control, and the metabolic transition from seed to seedling. Germination sensu stricto is achieved as soon as elongation of the radicle, implies heterotrophy metabolism; further thermal processing is needed before consumption. In contrast, seedlings production requires a long period of imbibition and can provide a ready-to-eat food product. Furthermore, proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and antinutritional compounds of pulses are described. Impacts of food processing, such as soaking, germination, and cooking, in nutritional and antinutritional values are also evaluated. The association of soaking, germination, and cooking increases the nutritional values of pulses by increasing protein/starch digestibility and vitamins content and by decreasing antinutritional compounds. The final plant-based product allows versatility in formulation to produce novel food products and/or ingredients with better nutritional content. This can encourage the scientific community, industry, and government to invest in research and development to increase germinated pulse-based food, to replace other products, or to develop new ones.

Mots-clés : amélioration de qualités nutritives; germination; légumineuse à grains; composition des aliments; traitement des aliments; valeur nutritive

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